Apart from Pakistan, there is our another major anti avalanche

Since April 1984, more than 1,000 Indian soldiers, including more than 35 officers, have lost their lives in the Siachen Glacier-Saltoro Ridge area to the avalanche.

©Priyanka Saurabh

Research Scholar in Political Science

Poetess, Independent journalist and columnist,

In Kargil district, the Indian Army has another major anti-avalanche apart from Pakistan. Since April 1984, more than 1,000 Indian soldiers, including more than 35 officers, have lost their lives in the Siachen Glacier-Saltoro Ridge area from the avalanche. His troops died after being trapped in snow for hours after an army struck an avalanche in the North Siachen Glacier. The Karakoram range is at an altitude of about 20,000 feet. The Siachen Glacier is known as the most militarized zone in the world, where soldiers have to contend with frostbite and high winds. Landslides are common during avalanches and temperatures can fall to as low as minus 60 degrees Celsius.

An avalanche is usually triggered when the material breaks on a slope; It quickly gathers and carries additional material down the slope. Many types of avalanches, including rock avalanches (which include large sections of broken rock), snow avalanches (which usually occur in the vicinity of a glacier), and debris avalanches (which contain many types of subliminal material) Occur. Avalanches can range in size from a small transfer of loose ice to the displacement of a huge slab of ice.

In a slab avalanche, the mass of descending ice can reach speeds of 130 km  per hour and is capable of destroying forests and small villages en route. Avalanches in northern America and Europe account for about 150 people a year Kills Most of the backcountry killed are skiers, climbers, snowshoers, and snowmobilers who accidentally trigger avalanches and get buried in snow. An avalanche is also deliberately done in the battle to kill enemy soldiers.

In World War I, during a battle in the Alps on the Austrian-Italian front in December 1916, an avalanche killed more than 10,000 soldiers in a single day, triggered by artillery on unstable snow slopes.

Avalanche has three main features: starting zone, avalanche tracks, and runout zone. The area where the avalanche begins is the most unstable part of the stop and is usually higher on the mountain. The factor responsible for the avalanche is heavy snowfall. When a high rate of snowfall occurred due to snow accumulation on the mountain slopes, an avalanche occurs due to a weak layer of snow in the snow bags of the mountainous areas.

The wind direction determines the snowfall as well as the snowfall pattern on the mountain slopes. If strong winds move, the upwind direction of the winds can trigger steep slopes that cause avalanches. A gradual snowfall creates a layer of ice by crust accumulation that makes snacks hypersensitive. If certain catastrophic events occur, these layers of snowfall, causing avalanches. Avalanche also occurs due to the effect of gravity. If there is gradual snowfall on the slopes of the mountain, it runs at a greater speed on the slope.

High temperature is one of the important factors for avalanches because the surface layer of snow melts due to high temperatures. Accumulated snow will be susceptible to slipping down. Earthquakes are one of the important factors that triggered the layer of accumulated snacks as earthquakes generate seismic waves that cause the ground to vibrate.

This is also caused by the movements or vibrations produced by machines and explosives as we know that the population is increasing day by day, which requires developmental activities to meet the population requirement. During developmental activities, the terrain in areas with unstable layers of snow can dislodge layers from the vehicle surface and cause them to slide under gravity.

Deforestation, withdrawal, or clearing is the removal of a forest or tree stand, where the land is then converted to a non-forest use. Plants always protect the land from natural disasters like floods, tidal waves, strong winds, and avalanches. Therefore, a developmental activity for economic benefit makes the mountainous area more vulnerable to deadly avalanches in avalanche-prone areas.

Attempting to predict and prevent avalanches is imperative for reducing fatal incidents and protecting villages and roads. Accurate avalanche prediction requires an experienced avalanche predictor, often to gather snows and from afar. Works both in the office with sophisticated tools such as accessed weather data, detailed historical weather and avalanche databases, weather models, and avalanche-forecast models.

Avalanche forecasters have combined their historical knowledge of past conditions with their knowledge of the affected areas, current weather, and current snowcap conditions to predict when and where avalanches are likely to occur. Such forecasting work typically occurs on mountainous highways, which are bordered by potentially affected villages, in ski areas, and in the area heavily used for backcountry skiing and snowmobiling.

In addition to predicting avalanches, people use a variety of techniques to reduce the risk of avalanches. Explosives are used to trigger avalanches on potentially unstable slopes so that avalanches will occur when people are not in danger. Such avalanche control is particularly effective for ski areas and highway corridors.

Avalanches are likely in some areas, especially near villages and fixed structures, using equipment such as avalanche rakes (large reinforced fences) to keep the snow in place on slopes, and bend structures such as slopes or weds. The slope is done at the base.

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